# 433. Minimum Genetic Mutation LeetCode Solution | Easy Approach

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Minimum Genetic Mutation A gene string can be represented by an 8-character long string, with choices from `'A'``'C'``'G'`, and `'T'`.

Suppose we need to investigate a mutation from a gene string `start` to a gene string `end` where one mutation is defined as one single character changed in the gene string.

• For example, `"AACCGGTT" --> "AACCGGTA"` is one mutation.

There is also a gene bank `bank` that records all the valid gene mutations. A gene must be in `bank` to make it a valid gene string.

Given the two gene strings `start` and `end` and the gene bank `bank`, return the minimum number of mutations needed to mutate from `start` to `end`. If there is no such a mutation, return `-1`.

Note that the starting point is assumed to be valid, so it might not be included in the bank.

Example 1:

```Input: start = "AACCGGTT", end = "AACCGGTA", bank = ["AACCGGTA"]
Output: 1
```

Example 2:

```Input: start = "AACCGGTT", end = "AAACGGTA", bank = ["AACCGGTA","AACCGCTA","AAACGGTA"]
Output: 2
```

Example 3:

```Input: start = "AAAAACCC", end = "AACCCCCC", bank = ["AAAACCCC","AAACCCCC","AACCCCCC"]
Output: 3
```

Constraints:

• `start.length == 8`
• `end.length == 8`
• `0 <= bank.length <= 10`
• `bank[i].length == 8`
• `start``end`, and `bank[i]` consist of only the characters `['A', 'C', 'G', 'T']`.

Time: O(n)
Space: O(n)

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